Jaber Ibn Hayan_ "The Father Of Chemistry"
"We taught the world" this sentence is known by anyone who briefed the civilizational tender which was submitted by the civilized Muslim Scholars for the world, all the world, and with us in this article, one of the great figures of the civilizational givings from the Islamic nation, at the height of its prosperity, bright and template pages in the area of chemistry and Applied Science, that is Jaber bin Hayan.
The history of Chemistry:
Muslim scholars liberated the chemistry from superstition. Chemistry started as fable, based on outdated myth, where the idea of converting cheap metals to precious metals dominated. This is because scientists in the civilizations before the Islamic civilization believed that Almenterkh metals such as gold, silver, copper and iron, lead and tin are from one type and that its variability is derived from its underlying heat, cold, drought and moisture, which are variable symptoms(in reference to the theory of the four elements: fire, air, water and soil). Therefore, these metals can be converted to each other by the third rule which is Elixier From this standpoint, some scientists of civilizations before the Islamic civilization imagined that it is possible to devise a magic wand of life or stone of wisdom, which removes ills of life and prolongs life. Then the science of chemistry passed through an era of time permeated with myths and quackery, but Arab Muslim scientists liberated it from the corrupted noise, which is not dependent on science , but on illusion and confusion. And already some of the first Arab and Muslim scientists, like Jaber Ibn Hayan and Abu Bakr Al-Razi, were affected by the theory of the four elements, which the Arab and Muslim scientists inherited from Greece. But they have had an accurate scientific study; This study led to the development and application of the scientific experimental method in the field of experimental sciences. So, the attempt to determine the validity of the theory of the four elements helped Arab and Muslim scientists to stand on a large number of chemicals, as well as the knowledge of some chemical interactions.T herefore, thanks to the Muslim Scholars in the development of the discovery of some simple chemical processes such as : distillation-sublimation-filtration-crystallization-Altksid. And with these simple processes, geniuses in science of chemistry managed in inventing a variety of machines used in scientific experiments that led scientists of modern age to the conquest of space and mined.
Who is Jaber bin Hayan?
Is Abu Abdullah bin Jaber bin Hayan bin Abdullah Alazdi, Arab doctor, lived in AlKuffa of Iraq and in Baghdad. He is the first to work and become genius in old Chemistry where, even Arabs nominated general chemistry as "handiwork of Jaber" referring to that "Jabir bin Hayan" is the first of the fellowship. He disclosed its plural and its entire. In his writings, he addressed the metals, oxides and salts, the sulfuric and nitric acids and anhydride, also addressed and refined alkalis with crystallizations and distillery, filtration and escalation.
Jaber bin Hayan, was the one who laid the foundations for modern and contemporary scientific Chemistry, witnessed so many scholars from the West, where Berthelot said about him : "That Jaber in the chemistry of what Aristotle in logic ." and the English philosopher Bacon said : " Jaber bin Hayan is the first to teach the science of Chemistry to the world , he is The Father of Chemistry", also Max Mairhov says : "The evolution of chemistry in Europe can be traced directly to Jaber Ibn Hayan ." The biggest proof of this is that many of the terms that he innovated are still used in various European languages. Jaber bin Hayan has deliberated to experience in his research, and believed deeply in it. He had recommended his students, saying : "The first duty is to work and carry out experiments, because who does not work and carries out testes, does not reach the lowest rank of perfection. So son, through experience you reach knowledge "
This list is simple and concise on some of the achievements of Jaber bin Hayan in chemistry :
§ Discovered "caustic soda" or Gatron
§ First to evoke water gold
§ First to introduce the method of separation of (NaOH)
§ First to discover nitric acid
§ First to discover hydrochloric acid
§ First to retrieve the sulfuric acid and termed it Alzaj oil
§ Introduced improvements to the evaporation methods of liquidation, distillation, fusion and crystallization
§ Been able to prepare a lot of chemicals like hydrated mercury and arsenious oxide
§ He explained in detail how to prepare arsenic, antimony, and purification of metals and dyeing fabrics
§ He manufactured incombustible paper
§ He made some sort of paint that prevents iron rust
§ The first to introduce the method of separating gold from silver solution by acids, which is the predominant mode to this day
Jaber also wrote so many books ranged between two hundred and thirty-two and five hundred books (232-500), on which the Europeans depended for several centuries. So after we saw what this great scientist gave the world, we now know how much the world lost, the whole world, by the degradation of Muslims in the present era.
By Rania El Saadawy