A Jerusalem - The Old City

 

File:Western-wall-plaza.jpg

 

Jerusalem is a key religious city for Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The earliest habitation that has been identified is a walled settlement on the eastern hill that had a populace of around 2,000 people during the 2nd millennium BCE in an area known today as the “City of David.” Some evidence of settlement can be traced back to 3200 BCE, but the earliest literary references appear in Egyptian texts from the 19th and 20th centuries BCE as “Rushalimum"

The Old City is divided into four neighborhoods, which are named according to the ethnic affiliation of most of the people who live in them. These quarters form a rectangular grid, but they are not equal in size. The dividing lines are the street that Various Names for Jerusalem run from Damascus Gate to the Zion Gate — which are Jerusalem, City of David, Zion, Yerushalayim (Hebrew), al-Quds (Arabic).into east and west — and the street leading from the Jaffa Gate to Lion's gate — which Although Jerusalem is primarily associated with Judaism, it wasn’t always in Jewish control. Sometime during the 2nd millennium BCE, the Egyptian Pharaoh received clay tablets from Abd Khiba, ruler of Jerusalem. Khiba makes no mention of his religion; the tablets only profess his loyalty to the pharaoh and complain about the dangers that surround him in the mountains. Abd Khiba probably wasn’t a member of the Hebrew tribes and it’s tantalizing to wonder who he was and what happened to him.

David Street places the Christian Quarter on the left. On the right, as you continue Jerusalem is known in Hebrew as Yerushalayim and in Arabic as al-Quds. Also commonly referred to as Zion or the City of David, there is no consensus on the origin of the name Jerusalem. Many believe that it is derived from the name of the city Jebus (named after the founder of the Jebusites) and Salem (named after a Canaanite god). One can translate Jerusalem as “Foundation of Salem” or “Foundation of Peace.” The Old City is divided into four neighborhoods, which are named according to the ethnic affiliation of most of the people who live in them. These quarters form a rectangular grid, but they are not equal in size. The dividing lines are the street that runs from Damascus Gate to the Zion Gate — which divides the city into east and west — and the street leading from the Jaffa Gate to Lion's gate — which bifurcates the city north and south. Traditionally, the Old City has been divided into four quarters, although the current designations were introduced only in the 19th century. Today, the Old City is roughly divided into the Muslim Quarter, the Christian Quarter, the Jewish Quarter and the Armenian Quarter.

The Jewish Quarter of the Old City was greatly destroyed by Jordan following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, but it was later restored by Israel following the Six Day War. In 1980, Jordan proposed the Old City to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site List. It was added to the List in 1981. In 1982, Jordan requested that it be added to the List of World Heritage Sites in danger.

Jerusalem Quarters

1. Muslim Quarter is the largest and most populous of the four quarters and is situated in the northeastern corner of the Old City, extending from the Lions' Gate in the east, along the northern wall of the Temple Mount in the south, to the Damascus Gate route in the west. Its population was 22,000 in 2005. Like the other three quarters of the Old City, the Muslim quarter had a mixed population of Jews as well as Muslims and Christians until the riots of 1929.Today 60 Jewish families live in the Muslim Quarter, and a few yeshivot are located there. The main one is Yeshivat Ateret Cohanim.

Entering through the Jaffa Gate and traveling to David Street places the Christian Quarter on the right, as you continue down David Street, you'll enter the Armenian Quarter. To the left of Jews Street is the Muslim Quarter, and, to the right, is the Jewish David Street, you'll enter the Armenian Quarter. To the left of Jews Street is the Muslim Quarter, and, to the right, is Christian Quarter.

2. Christian Quarter is situated in the north-western corner of the Old City, extending from the New Gate (see below) in the north, along the western wall of the Old City as far as the Jaffa Gate, along the Jaffa Gate - Western Wall route in the south, bordering on the Jewish and Armenian Quarters, as far as the Damascus Gate in the east, where it borders on the Muslim Quarter. The quarter contains the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, one of Christianity's holiest places.

You may notice that the original gates are angled so that you can't enter directly into the city without making a sharp 90-degree angle turn.

The Armenian Quarter is the smallest of the four quarters of the Old City. Although the Armenian people are Christians, the Armenian Quarter is distinct from the Christian Quarter. Despite the small size and population of this quarter, the Armenians and their Patriarchate remain staunchly independent and form a vigorous presence in the Old City. After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the four quarters of the city came under Jordanian control. Jordanian law required Armenians and other Christians to “give equal time to the Bible and Qur'an” in private Christian schools, and restricted the expansion of church assets. The 1967 war is remembered by residents of the quarter as a miracle, after two unexploded bombs were found inside the Armenian monastery. Today more than 3,000 Armenians live in Jerusalem, 500 of them in the Armenian Quarter. Some are temporary residents studying at the seminary or working as church functionaries. The Patriarchate owns the land in this quarter as well as valuable property in West Jerusalem and elsewhere. In 1975, a theological seminary was established in the Armenian Quarter. After the 1967 war, the Israeli government gave compensation for repairing any churches or holy sites damaged in the fighting, regardless of who caused the damage.

Also, you can see above some of the gates, such as Zion Gate, outside the Armenian and Jewish quarters, a hole Jewish Quarter

3.  Jewish Quarter lies in the southeastern sector of the walled city, and stretches from the Zion Gate in the south, along the Armenian Quarter on the west, up to the Cardo in the north and extends to the Western Wall and the Temple Mount in the east. The quarter has had a rich history, with a nearly continual Jewish presence since the eighth century BCE. In 1948 its population of about 2,000 Jews was besieged, and forced to leave en masse.  The quarter had been completely sacked by the Arabs, with ancient synagogues destroyed. The quarter remained under Jordanian control until its capture by Israeli paratroops in the Six-Day War of 1967. The quarter has since been rebuilt and settled, and has a population of 2,348 (as of 2004), and many large educational institutions have taken up residence. Before being rebuilt, the quarter was carefully excavated under the supervision of Hebrew University archaeologist Nahman Avigad. The archaeological remains, on display in a series of museums and outdoor parks, to visit which tourists descend two or three stories beneath the level of the current city, collectively form one of the world's most accessible archaeological sites. The former Chief Rabbi is Rabbi Avigdor Nebenzahl, and current is his son Rabbi Chizkiyahu Nebenzahl who is on the faculty of Yeshivat Netiv Aryeh situated directly across from the Kotel.

 

By Shimaa Abd El Mageed

References:

http://atheism.about.com/od/bibleplacescities/p/Jerusalem.htmboiling liquids could be poured on attackers

Www.Wikipedia.com

http://atheism.about.com/od/bibleplacescities/p/Jerusalem.htm

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Jerusalem2.html

 

 



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  • Abdallah Rabaya       holly land

    Jerusalem its my contry Jerusalem very very very nice city coz its the capital of palestine

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