Who is the Muslim??
The Arabic word "Muslim" literally means "someone who submits to the will of God". Being a Muslim entails complete acceptance and active obedience to the revealed will of Almighty God. There are two major aspects of a devout muslim, beliefs and practice. For the rest of this article, beliefs will be the focus of the topic while practice will be discussed in the following articles.
Muslims believe that God revealed his final message to humanity through the Islamic prophet Muhammad(peace be on him) via the angel Gabriel. They consider Muhammad(peace be on him) to have been God's final prophet and the Qur'an to be the revelations he received over more than two decades. Muslims hold that all of God's messengers since Adam preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of the one God. Islam is described in the Qur'an as "the primordial nature upon which God created mankind", and the Qur'an states that the proper name Muslim was given by Abraham. As a historical phenomenon Islam originated in Arabia in the early 7th century. Islamic texts depict Judaism and Christianity as prophetic successor traditions to the teachings of Abraham. The Qur'an calls Jews and Christians "People of the Book", and distinguishes them from polytheists. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted over time—either in interpretation, in text, or both.
Islamic belief has six essential components—belief in God; his revelations; his angels; his messengers; divine decree; and the "Day of Judgment".
To a Muslim, Allah is the Almighty, Creator and Sustainer of the universe, Who is similar to nothing and nothing is comparable to Him and there is no other God but Him. Islam rejects characterizing God in any human form or depicting Him as favoring certain individuals or nations on the basis of wealth, power or race. He created the human beings as equals. They may distinguish themselves and get His favor through virtue and piety only. In traditional Islamic theology, God is transcendent and above all comprehension. God is described in a chapter of the Qu'ran as: "…God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him.
Is the Divine Book revealed to Muhammad (peace be on him) between the years 610 to 632 to all of mankind. The Qur'an occupies a status of primacy in Islamic jurisprudence, and Muslims consider it a definitive source of guidance. Qur'anexegesis known as tafsir. The entire Qur'an was completely written down in lifetime of the Prophet, and numerous companions of the Prophet memorized the entire Qur'an word-for-word as it was revealed. God's revelation in the Qur'an focuses on teaching human beings the importance of believing in the oneness and uniqueness of God and framing their lives around the guidance which He has sent. Additionally, the Qur'an contains the stories of the previous prophets, such as Abraham, Noah, Moses and Jesus; as well as many commands and prohibitions from God.
Belief in angels is central to the faith of Islam. According to the Qur'an, angels were created from light, do not possess free will, and worship God in perfect obedience. Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are described in the Qur'an as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases…" Angels sometimes but not usually assume human form, and can intercede on man's behalf.
Muhammad(peace be upon him) and other God messengers(peace be upon them)
Muslims must believe in all the messengers who came before Muhammad(peace be upon him) as well as in Muhammad as the last and the greatest messenger of Allah (God). Muslims view Muhammad(peace be upon him) not as the founder of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and others. For the last 23 years of his life, beginning at age 40, Muhammad reported receiving revelations from God. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized and recorded by his followers. Despite his exalted status in Muslim thought, Muslims believe that Muhammad was merely human.
In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah. This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports")"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. Not long after the classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi' (d 820) , the Sunnah came to play a significant role in islamic law, , and Muslims were encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The authentic hadith are considered by Muslims to be an authoritative source of revelation, second only to the Qur'an, because they represent divine guidance as implemented by Muhammad(peace be upon him).
the Islamic belief in divine preordainment is called the belief in Qadr, which means that God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'…." Muslims believe that nothing in the world can happen, good or evil, unless it has been preordained and permitted by God. Man possesses free will in the sense that he has the faculty to choose between the right and wrong, and thus retains responsibility over his actions. In Islamic thought, divine preordainment does not suggest an absence of God's indignation against evil because any evils and calamities that do occur are thought to result in future benefits that mankind may be unable to foresee. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfuz, the "Preserved Tablet".
Resurrection and judgment
Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", yawm al-Qiyamah, is fundamental to Islam. Muslims believe that the time of Qiyamah is preordained by God, but unknown to man. Qur'an states that resurrection will be followed by the gathering of all mankind, Muslim and non-Muslim, culminating in their judgment by God. In this day every person's rights will be weighed against his sins to determine his fate.