Episode 4: Community changes till 15 March 624
Muhammad (PBUH) came to Medina as a mediator, invited to resolve the feud between the Arab factions of Aws and Khazraj. He ultimately did so by absorbing both factions into his Muslim community, forbidding bloodshed among Muslims. However, Medina was also home to a number of Jewish tribes, divided into three major clans: Banu Qaynuqamajor, Banu Qurayza and Banu Nadir, and some minor groups.
Among the things Muhammad (PBUH) did in order to settle down the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was drafting a document known as Constitution (date debated), "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca, which specified the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including that of the Muslim community to other communities specifically the Jews and Christians).
Now let us look at what some well-known non-Muslim scholars think about the prophet Muhammad(PBUH) and his achievements:
· Muhammad saved the human civilization from extinction. - J.H. Denison Emotions As The Basis Of Civilization
· He laid the foundation of a universal government. His law was one for all. Equal justice and love for everyone. - George Rivoire- Visages de l'islam
· Mohammad's religion reformed all existing dogmas and brought the Arabs ahead of the super powers of the time. - Dr.Marcus Dode- Mohammad.
· Mohammad introduced the concept of such Glorious and Omnipotent God in whose eyes all worldly systems are pieces of straw . Islamic equality of mankind is no fiction as it is in Christianity . No human mind has ever thought of such total as established by Mohammad. - Dr. Mawde Royden-The Problem Of Palestine.
· The message of Mohammad is not a set of metaphysical phenomena. It is a complete civilization. - W.A.R Gibb-Whither Islam
By Raniaa El Saadawy
· Armstrong, Karen (1992). Muhmmad: Biography of the Prophet. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-250886-5
· Wikipedia Encyclopedia
· Translation of Sahih Muslim.. USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Retrieved on January, 2006 www.shodalap.com/R_Muhammad.pdf